One of the first students at Rome's famed cinema school, Zampa worked as a scenarist before making his directorial bow with "L'Attore Scomparso" in 1941. Although he began working early in the fascist era on "white telephone" comedies, Zampa reached his creative peak during the post-war neorealist movement with such films as "Vivere in Pace"/"Live in Peace" (1946) and "Processo alla Citta" (1952). Zampa's best films combine social realism with light satire, and his heroes are frequently workers suffering under government bureaucracy or corruption. A working-class woman (Anna Magnani) leads a protest against city officials in "Angelina" (1947); "Difficult Years" (1948) deals with an office worker's attempts to please his fascist employers; and "City on Trial" (1952) condemns a government controlled by the Mafia. "L'Arte di Arrangiarsi/The Art of Making Do" (1954) was the first in a series of films that continued through the 1970s, in which comedian Alberto Sordi portrayed cynical opportunists, petty thieves or corrupt public servants.