One of the most prolific and visionary music video directors of the 1990s and early 21st century, Mark Romanek was a writer and filmmaker whose unique and often disturbing visual style helped to pave the way for his subsequent work in feature films. After serving briefly under Brian De Palma, he broke into the burgeoning music video field in the late 1980s, quickly establishing himself through videos for artists ranging from Beck and Fiona Apple to Johnny Cash and Michael Jackson. Romanek's videos were lushly filmed, filled with intimate and often provocative images, and on occasion, controversial, as the perverse visions in his clip for Nine Inch Nails' "Closer" proved. The acclaim over his video work led to numerous commercial spots as well as one feature-length film, the chilly psycho-thriller "One Hour Photo" (2002). The film's moderate success lent to many other announced projects, none of which came to fruition; however, his status as one of the most talented filmmakers in the music video field remained untouched.