Gangs of New York (2002)

Gangs of New York
Type Feature Film
MPAA Rating R
Runtime 2hr 45mins.
Genres Drama, Crime, Adaptation, Period
Keywords 1800s, 1860s, brothel, corruption, crime, election, gangster, immigration, Irish, mafia, Manhattan, New York, revenge, riot, secrets, violent
Status Released
US Release Date
  
Name Credit Credited as Role Id Sort Order
Mariano De Simone Song Performer ("Morrison's Jig/Liberty") 120788 8000065
Angelo Giuliani Song Performer ("Lilly Bell Quickstep") 120788 8000054
Marco Libanori Song Performer ("Lilly Bell Quickstep") 120788 8000053
Hal Willner Music Producer Original Score Producer 323 8000024
Finbar Furey Song Performer ("Last Rose Of Summer") 120788 8000063
Afro Celt Sound System Song Performer ("Dark Moon, High Tide") 120788 8000058
Franco D'Aniello Song Performer ("The White Cockade") 120788 8000067
Alessandro Bruccoleri Song Performer ("Massa Juba") 120788 8000088
Beatrice Pradella Song Performer ("Lilly Bell Quickstep") 120788 8000052
Maura O'Connell Song Performer ("Unconstant Lover") 120788 8000073
Dan Costescu Song Performer ("Pigeon On The Gate") 120788 8000075
Jeff Atmajian Song Performer ("Cantata") 120788 8000077
Piergiorgio Ambrosi Song Performer ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God") 120788 8000076
Eileen Ivers Song Performer ("Lament For Staker Wallace") 120788 8000074
Sonny Terry Song Performer ("New Careless Love") 120788 8000062
Miss Malden Song Performer ("Hallelujah/Amazing Grace") 120788 8000056
Alabama Sacred Harp Convention Song Performer ("Hallelujah/Amazing Grace") 120788 8000055
Jimmie Strothers Song Performer ("Poontang Little, Poontang Small") 120788 8000057
Nathan Frazier Song Performer ("Dan Tucker") 120788 8000060
Sidney Stripling Song Performer ("Breakaway") 120788 8000078
Frank Patterson Song Performer ("Dan Tucker") 120788 8000061
Bono Song Performer ("Baidin Fheidhlimi") 120788 8000066
Mary Black Song Performer ("Paddy's Lamentation") 120788 8000080
Jimpson & Group Song Performer ("The Murderer's Home") 120788 8000097
Fife And Drum Band Song Performer ("Late At Midnight Just A Little 'Fore Day") 120788 8000096
Jocelyn Pook Song Performer ("Dionysus") 120788 8000095
Ike Caudill Song Performer ("Guide Me O Thou Great Jehovah") 120788 8000098
Mt. Olivet Old Regular Baptist Church Song Performer ("Guide Me O Thou Great Jehovah") 120788 8000099
Brian Dunning Song Performer ("Vows") 120788 8000102
Jeffrey Johnson Song Performer ("Vows") 120788 8000101
The Chieftains Song Performer ("Kerry Sides") 120788 8000100
Giuseppe Salvagni Song Performer ("Garry Owens Jig") 120788 8000094
Anna De Luca Song Performer ("Garry Owens Jig") 120788 8000092
Vittorio Schiboni Song Performer ("Devil Amongst The Tailors") 120788 8000082
Francesco Moneti Song Performer ("Uncle Tom's Religion") 120788 8000081
The Dhol Foundation Song Performer ("Drummer's Reel") 120788 8000051
Massimo Giuntini Song Performer ("Devil Amongst The Tailors") 120788 8000083
Rodrigo D'Erasmo Song Performer ("Devil Amongst The Tailors") 120788 8000084
Hukwe Zawose Song Performer ("Chilumi") 120788 8000091
Shu-De Song Performer ("Durgen Chugaa") 120788 8000090
Lauren Weiss Song Performer ("Massa Juba") 120788 8000089
Linda Thompson Song Performer ("Pakwach Acholi Bwala Dance") 120788 8000079
Peter Gabriel Song Performer ("Signal To Noise") 120788 8000049
Patricia Carlin Music Editor n/a 214 8000021
Anastasios Filipos Music Editor n/a 214 8000020
Kathy Durning Music Editor n/a 214 8000019
Jennifer Dunnington Music Editor n/a 214 8000018
Carl Glanville Music Engineer ("The Hands That Built America") 120837 8000022
Robbie Robertson Music Producer Executive Music Producer 323 8000023
Jeff Atmajian Original Music ("Brooklyn Heights") 120838 8000028
Giancarlo Vulcano Music Supervisor Orchestra Score Supervisor 120872 8000027
Dave "The Edge" Evans Music Producer ("The Hands That Built America") 323 8000025
Angelo Giovagnoli Music Coordinator n/a 206 8000017
Jiang Anxi Music Coordinator Chinese Performance Coordinator 206 8000016
Congregation of Thornton Regular Baptist Church Music Arranger ("Guide Me O Thou Great Jehovah") 121019 8000010
George Spangler Music Arranger ("Guide Me O Thou Great Jehovah") 121019 8000009
Dave "The Edge" Evans Music Arranger String Arrangements("The Hands That Built America") 121019 8000008
Daragh O'Toole Music Conductor Live Strings Conductor("The Hands That Built America") 120818 8000011
Andy Brown Music Conductor ("Brooklyn Heights") 120818 8000012
Jeff Grace Music Coordinator Technical Coordinator 206 8000015
Felicia Michael Music Coordinator Music Production Coordinator 206 8000014
Joe Rangel Music Coordinator Source Music Coordinator 206 8000013
Sharon Corr Performer Violin("The Hands That Built America") 120819 8000029
Andrea Corr Performer Tin Whistle("The Hands That Built America") 120819 8000030
James Kanagasooriam Soloist Solo Boy Soprano("Brooklyn Heights") 121021 8000044
Will Towers Soloist Solo Counter Tenor("Brooklyn Heights") 121021 8000043
Geoff Foster Score Recording Additional Recording("Brooklyn Heights") 120840 8000042
Eric Liljestrand Score Recording Recording("Brooklyn Heights") 120840 8000041
Howard Shore Song ("Brooklyn Heights") 120859 8000045
Zhang Hong Yi Song ("Leaving Home") 120859 8000046
John Fitzpatrick Song Performer ("Vows") 120788 8000103
Badara Ndiaye Song Performer ("Koukou Frappe") 120788 8000048
Othar Turner and His Rising Star Fife & Drum Band Song Performer ("Shimmy She Wobble") 120788 8000047
Geoff Foster Score Mixing Additional Mixing("Brooklyn Heights") 120927 8000040
Tom Lazarus Score Mixing Additional Mixing("Brooklyn Heights") 120927 8000039
Rosie Nic Athlaioch Performer Viola("The Hands That Built America") 120819 8000033
Una O'Kane Performer Violin("The Hands That Built America") 120819 8000032
Katie O'Connor Performer Violin("The Hands That Built America") 120819 8000031
Emer O'Grady Performer Cello("The Hands That Built America") 120819 8000034
The Silver Leaf Quartet Performer ("Gospel Train") 120819 8000035
Eric Liljestrand Score Mixing Mixing("Brooklyn Heights") 120927 8000038
Carl Glanville Score Mixing Mixing("The Hands That Built America") 120927 8000037
Chen Dan Can Performer ("Beijing Opera Music") 120819 8000036
Davy Spillane Song Performer ("Lament For The Dead Of The North") 120788 8000050
Gregg Williams Song Performer ("Vows") 120788 8000104
Eugene Gearty Rerecording Mixer n/a 120856 14000015
Tom Fleischman Rerecording Mixer n/a 120856 14000014
Harry Higgins Rerecording Rerecordist 120995 14000013
Terry Laudermilch Rerecording Rerecordist 120995 14000012
Eugene Gearty Sound Effects Sound Effects Designer 120868 14000016
Eugene Gearty Sound Effects Editor n/a 327 14000017
Phil Stockton Supervising Sound Editor n/a 328 14000020
Candido Raini Sound Mixer n/a 230 14000019
Ivan Sharrock Sound Mixer n/a 230 14000018
George A. Lara Foley Mixer n/a 224 14000011
Bruce Pross Foley Editor n/a 221 14000010
Marko Costanzo Foley Artist n/a 223 14000004
Hal Levinsohn ADR Editor n/a 220 14000003
Kenton Jakub ADR Editor n/a 220 14000002
Jay Peck Foley Artist n/a 223 14000005
Frank Kern Foley Editor Supervising Foley Editor 221 14000006
Jacob Ribicoff Foley Editor n/a 221 14000009
Steven Visscher Foley Editor n/a 221 14000008
Kam Chan Foley Editor n/a 221 14000007
Marco Maldonado Motion Control (Insert Photography) 121053 19000001
Connie Brink Sr. Pyrotechnics (Insert Photography) 121027 19000002
David Greenbaum Assistant (to Harvey Weinstein) 120820 25000001
Bernard Maisner Props Hand Lettered Props 120817 24000001
Dan Perri Main Title Design n/a 120925 23000008
Manlio Rocchetti Special Effects n/a 168 23000007
Vic Armstrong Second Unit Director (Action Unit) 412 25000002
Peter Markham Second Unit Director (Additional Photography) 412 25000003
Larry Kaplan Publicity n/a 120789 29000001
Mario Francini Manager Studio Manager 120827 28000002
Gianluca Passone Manager Studio Manager 120827 28000001
Daniel Acon Special Effects Coordinator n/a 241 23000006
Mario Cassar Special Effects Technician n/a 242 23000005
Dominique Vandenberg Stunt Coordinator Fight Coordinator 120804 19000005
Claudio Pacifico Stunt Coordinator (Italy) 120804 19000004
George Aguilar Stunt Coordinator n/a 120804 19000003
Pasquale Martino Animal Wrangler n/a 120863 20000001
Michael Owens Visual Effects Supervisor (ILM) 249 23000001
Renato Agostini Special Effects Technician (Italy) 242 23000004
Giovanni Corridori Special Effects Supervisor (Italy) 545 23000003
Bruce Steinheimer Special Effects Supervisor n/a 545 23000002
Marissa Littlefield ADR Editor Supervising ADR Editor 220 14000001
Uliva Pizzetti Wardrobe Wardrobe Mistress 120823 13000016
Kate Dowd Casting (U.K.) 179 10000002
Ellen Lewis Casting n/a 179 10000001
Yuji Yoshimoto Model Maker (Insert Photography) 121081 9000010
Giovanni Gianese Sculptor n/a 120910 9000009
Lilia Trapani Casting (Italy) 179 10000003
Kathleen Chopin Casting Associate n/a 160 10000004
Harvey Weinstein Studio Executive n/a 120875 11000002
Randy Spendlove Executive in Charge of Music 120791 11000001
Louis Elman Voice Casting ADR Voice Casting 189 10000005
Dimitri Capuani Art Director n/a 183 9000008
Alessandro Alberti Art Director n/a 183 9000007
Dante Ferretti Production Designer n/a 164 9000001
Zhang Ke-Wei Vocals ("Leaving Home") 121032 8000106
Tim Ellis Song Performer ("Vows") 120788 8000105
Francesca Lo Schiavo Set Decorator n/a 165 9000002
Stefano Ortolani Art Director Supervising Art Director 183 9000003
Nazzareno Piana Art Director n/a 183 9000006
Maria Teresa Barbasso Art Director n/a 183 9000005
Robert Guerra Art Director n/a 183 9000004
David Parfitt Consultant n/a 120784 12000001
Naisola Grimwood Research n/a 458 12000002
Mario Michisanti Makeup Artist n/a 120801 13000010
Manlio Rocchetti Makeup Artist n/a 120801 13000009
Rosa Luciani Hairdresser n/a 121014 13000008
Elisabetta De Leonardis Hairdresser n/a 121014 13000007
Luigi Rocchetti Makeup Artist n/a 120801 13000011
Linda Melazzo Makeup Artist n/a 120801 13000012
Stefano De Nardis Wardrobe Wardrobe Master 120823 13000015
Maurizio Silvi Makeup Artist n/a 120801 13000014
Federico Laurenti Makeup Artist n/a 120801 13000013
Ferdinando Merolla Hair Stylist n/a 120799 13000006
Giorgio Gregorini Hair Stylist n/a 120799 13000005
Mariano De Simone Advisor Production Music Advisor 120821 12000005
Luc Sante Advisor Historical Advisor 120821 12000004
Marcello De Dominicis Advisor Production Music Advisor 120821 12000003
John Dell Advisor Butchering Advisor 120821 12000006
Claudio Manzi Costume Coordinator n/a 120971 13000001
Aldo Signoretti Hair Hair Designer 120794 13000004
Paolo Scalabrino Costume Supervisor n/a 120895 13000003
Sandy Powell Costume Designer n/a 169 13000002
Zhang Hong Yi Music ("Beijing Opera Music") 120781 8000007
Tim Stritmater Music Music Crew 120781 8000006
John Sessions Actor Harry Watkins/Lincoln 1 1000058
Kieran Hurley Actor Recruiter 1 1000057
Gennaro Condemi Actor She-He 1 1000056
Louie Brownsell Actor Legless Soldier 1 1000055
Michael H Billingsley Actor Uncle Tom 1 1000059
Steven C Matthews Actor Mr. Shelby 1 1000060
Flaminia Fegarotti Actor Miss Eliza 1 1000063
Alexia Justine Murray Actor Topsy 1 1000062
Giovanni Lombardo Radice Actor Mr. Legree 1 1000061
Iain McColl Actor Seamus, Condemned Man 1 1000054
James Ramsay Actor Arthur, Condemned Man 1 1000053
Bruce Steinheimer Actor Army Recruiter 1 1000047
Douglas Plasse Actor Medical Student 1 1000046
Richard Strange Actor Undertaker 1 1000045
Richard Graham Actor Harvey, Card Player 1 1000044
David Bamber Actor Passenger on Omnibus 1 1000048
Michael Byrne Actor Horace Greeley 1 1000049
Alex Howden Actor Assistant Hangman 1 1000052
Maura O'Connell Actor Street Singer 1 1000051
Lucy Davenport Actor Miss Schermerhorn 1 1000050
Bronco McLoughlin Actor Assassin 1 1000064
Channing C Holmes Actor Tap Dancer 1 1000065
Colin Hill Actor Nativist Candidate 1 1000079
Nazzareno Natale Actor Don Whiskerandos 1 1000078
Taddeo Harbutt Actor Unruly Man 1 1000077
Brendan F Dempsey Actor Provost Marshal Registrar 1 1000076
Robert Linge Actor One-Armed Veteran 1 1000080
Richard Syms Actor Drunken Repeater 1 1000081
Tim Faraday Actor Plug Uglies Leader 1 1000084
David J Nichols Actor O'Connell Guard Leader 1 1000083
Christian Burgess Actor The Mayor 1 1000082
Brendan White Actor Archbishop 1 1000075
Patrick Gordon Actor Surgeon 1 1000074
Marta Pilato Actor Whore 1 1000068
Roberta Quaresima Actor Whore 1 1000067
Elaine Chappuis Actor Chinese Whore 1 1000066
Su Jian Actor Chinese Acrobat 1 1000069
Cao Man Actor Chinese General 1 1000070
Peter Berling Actor Knife Act Caller 1 1000073
Alexander Deng Actor Chinese Boy Singer 1 1000072
Kathy Shao-Lin Lee Actor Chinese Dancer 1 1000071
Sean Gilder Actor Rat Pit Game Master 1 1000043
Finbar Furey Actor Satan's Circus Singer 1 1000042
Roger Ashton-Griffiths Actor P T Barnum 1 1000015
Cara Seymour Actor Hell-Cat Maggie 1 1000014
Larry Gilliard Jr. Actor Jimmy Spoils 1 1000013
David Hemmings Actor Mr. Schermerhorn 1 1000012
Liam Neeson Actor Priest Vallon 1 1000016
Gary McCormack Actor Stick 1 1000017
Barbara Bouchet Actor Mrs. Schermerhorn 1 1000020
Liam Carney Actor Fuzzy 1 1000019
Gerry Robert Byrne Actor Draft Official 1 1000018
Alec McCowen Actor Reverend Raleigh 1 1000011
Eddie Marsan Actor Killoran 1 1000010
Jim Broadbent Actor William "Boss" Tweed 1 1000004
Daniel Day-Lewis Actor William Cutting/"Bill The Butcher" 1 1000003
Cameron Diaz Actor Jenny Everdeane 1 1000002
John C Reilly Actor Happy Jack 1 1000005
Henry Thomas Actor Johnny Sirocco 1 1000006
Stephen Graham Actor Shang 1 1000009
Gary Lewis Actor McGloin 1 1000008
Brendan Gleeson Actor Walter "Monk" McGinn 1 1000007
Peter-Hugo Daly Actor One-Armed Priest 1 1000021
Cian McCormack Actor Young Amsterdam 1 1000022
Ford Kiernan Actor Black Joke Chief 1 1000036
Laurie Ventry Actor Resident Woman 1 1000035
Ilaria D'Elia Actor Jenny's Girl 1 1000034
Carmen Hanlon Actor Jenny's Girl 1 1000033
Alec McMahon Actor Resident Man 1 1000037
Nevan Finegan Actor Dead Rabbit Gang Member 1 1000038
Basil Chung Actor Elderly Chinese at Padoda 1 1000041
Stuart Ong Actor Chinese at Sparrow's Pagoda 1 1000040
Dominique Vandenberg Actor Dead Rabbit Gang Member 1 1000039
Katherine Wallach Actor Jenny's Girl 1 1000032
Dick Holland Actor True Blue American Speaker 1 1000031
Rab Affleck Actor Plug Uglies Leader 1 1000025
Philip Kirk Actor O'Connell Guard Leader 1 1000024
Andrew Gallagher Actor Young Johnny 1 1000023
Bill Barclay Actor Shirt Tails Leader 1 1000026
Nick Bartlett Actor Chichesters Leader 1 1000027
David McBlain Actor Bill The Butcher's Gang 1 1000030
Tim Pigott-Smith Actor Calvinist Minister 1 1000029
Robert Goodman Actor Forty Thieves Leader 1 1000028
Sean McGinley Actor Forty Thieves Leader 1 1000085
John Anthony Murphy Actor Kerryonians Leader 1 1000086
Dawn Freer Script Supervisor (Insert Photography) 191 5000021
Eleonora Baldwin Script Supervisor n/a 191 5000020
Stella D'Onofrio Script Supervisor n/a 191 5000019
Rachel Griffiths Script Supervisor n/a 191 5000018
James D Putt Post-Production Post-Production Services(for Initial Entertainment Group) 120945 5000022
Stuart MacPhee Post-Production Coordinator n/a 120842 5000023
Cecilia Alvarenga Production Coordinator n/a 162 5000026
Catherine Smith Production Coordinator n/a 162 5000025
Charlotte Kirchgaesser Post-Production Coordinator n/a 120842 5000024
Erik Paoletti Location Manager n/a 193 5000017
Michael A Jackman Post-Production Supervisor n/a 120796 5000016
Luca Lachin Assistant Director (Italy) 163 5000010
Douglas Plasse Assistant Director n/a 163 5000009
Christopher Surgent Assistant Director n/a 163 5000008
Inti Carboni Assistant Director (Italy) 163 5000011
Alex Corven Assistant Director n/a 163 5000012
Barbara Pastrovich Assistant Director n/a 163 5000015
Francesca Ghiotto Assistant Director n/a 163 5000014
Flippo Fassetta Assistant Director n/a 163 5000013
Elisabetta Tomasso Production Coordinator n/a 162 5000027
Fabrizio Lombardo Production Coordinator (for Miramax in Italy) 162 5000028
Fred Rosenberg Dialogue Editor n/a 204 7000005
Laura Civiello Dialogue Editor n/a 204 7000004
Pat Buba Editor Additional Editor 172 7000003
James Kwei Editor Additional Editor 172 7000002
Elmer Bernstein Composer n/a 120836 8000001
Howard Shore Music n/a 120781 8000002
Lowell Pickett Music Music Crew 120781 8000005
Jim Bruening Music Music Crew 120781 8000004
Greg LaPorta Music Electronic Programmer 120781 8000003
Thelma Schoonmaker Editor n/a 172 7000001
Phil Macro Photography Insert Photography Director 120835 6000009
Phil Marco Director of Photography (Insert Photography) 120780 6000003
Florian Ballhaus Director of Photography n/a 120780 6000002
Michael Ballhaus Director of Photography n/a 120780 6000001
Andrew Rowlands Camera Operator n/a 239 6000004
Daniele Massaccesi Camera Operator n/a 239 6000005
Daniele Massaccesi Steadicam Operator n/a 232 6000008
Andrew Rowlands Steadicam Operator n/a 232 6000007
Fabrizio Vicari Camera Operator n/a 239 6000006
Joseph Reidy Assistant Director n/a 163 5000007
Massimo Iacobis Production Manager n/a 305 5000006
Ian Agnew Actor General Wool 1 1000100
Angela Pleasence Actor Woman Accomplice 1 1000099
Bill Murdoch Actor Robber on Dock 1 1000098
Joel Strachan Actor Telegraph Operator 1 1000097
Michael Hausman Actor Gunboat Captain 1 1000101
Bob Colletti Actor Soldier in Mist 1 1000102
Harvey Weinstein Producer n/a 3 3000002
Alberto Grimaldi Producer n/a 3 3000001
Martin Scorsese Director n/a 2 2000001
Joseph Reidy Actor Police Chief 1 1000096
Brian Mallon Actor Voice of Telegraph Operator 1 1000095
Nick Miles Actor Atlantic Guard Leader 1 1000089
Vincent Pickering Actor American Guard Leader 1 1000088
Terry O'Neill Actor Chichesters Leader 1 1000087
Ian Pirie Actor Slaughter Housers Leader 1 1000090
John McGlynn Actor Bowery Boys Leader 1 1000091
Justin Brennan Actor Voice of Telegraph Operator 1 1000094
Leo Burmeister Actor Voice of Telegraph Operator 1 1000093
Larry Kaplan Actor Bloodied Bureaucrat 1 1000092
Michael Ovitz Executive Producer n/a 174 3000003
Bob Weinstein Executive Producer n/a 174 3000004
Herbert Asbury Source Material (from novel: "Gangs of New York") 120786 4000006
Jay Cocks Story By n/a 120779 4000005
Kenneth Lonergan Screenplay n/a 120778 4000004
Steven Zaillian Screenplay n/a 120778 4000003
Michael Hausman Unit Production Manager n/a 182 5000001
Federico Foti Unit Manager (Italy) 120832 5000002
Riccardo Neri Production Manager (Italy) 305 5000005
Michael A Jackman Line Producer (Additional Photography) 161 5000004
Laura Fattori Line Producer n/a 161 5000003
Jay Cocks Screenplay n/a 120778 4000002
Gerry Robert Byrne Associate Producer n/a 171 3000013
Maurizio Grimaldi Executive Producer n/a 174 3000007
Michael Hausman Executive Producer n/a 174 3000006
Rick Yorn Executive Producer n/a 174 3000005
Joseph Reidy Co-Producer n/a 170 3000008
Laura Fattori Co-Producer n/a 170 3000009
Colin Vaines Co-Executive Producer n/a 185 3000012
Rick Schwartz Co-Executive Producer n/a 185 3000011
Graham King Co-Executive Producer n/a 185 3000010
Leonardo DiCaprio Actor Amsterdam Vallon 1 1000001
Synopsis
In 1860's lower Manhattan, the Five Points section is a dark, teeming corner of the city known for vice and chaos. Into this frontier of lawlessness arrives the young Irish American, Amsterdam Vallon. Amsterdam is the orphaned son of the slain Priest Vallon--once chief warrior of the Dead Rabbits gang that rallied the Irish immigrants of the Five Points. After 16 years in a "House of Refuge," Amsterdam has returned to the Five Points to hunt down his father's killer. His target is William Cutting (aka "Bill the Butcher") who has since become the merciless new leader of the neighborhood and detests the newly arrived immigrants. Each year, on the anniversary of Priest Vallon's death, the victory is commemorated with a celebration--with invitations handed out by way of the Butcher himself. Amsterdam's plan is clear: to lie in wait and slay his father's killer. While waiting for that night, Amsterdam works his way deep into the Butcher's inner circle, a world of alternating honor and cruelty from which he can only hope to escape. But the closer he gets to Bill, the more he falls under his spell and becomes conflicted--playing the role of the man's surrogate son while keeping the true secret of his past in the shadows. At the same time, Amsterdam meets Jenny Everdeane, an enigmatic pickpocket whose fierce independence fascinates him. When details of her closely linked past with Bill the Butcher emerge, the relationship between the three intensifies. Amsterdam's fight for family honor, freedom and the woman he loves ultimately collides with a pivotal moment in New York and American history: the 1863 Civil War Draft Riots. This uprising, fueled by new Americans like Amsterdam, will have repercussions that will spread through the Five Points to the halls of Government and beyond, and reveal a tenacious spirit in the city that endures.