Anderson's quirky drama Moonrise Kingdom scooped the Best Feature Award, making it hotly tipped to win big at next year's (13) Oscars.
The Gotham prizegiving traditionally kicks off the film world's awards season, and winners often go on to nab Academy Awards nominations and trophies.
Leto picked up the Audience Award for his film Artifact, a documentary about the making of his band 30 Seconds to Mars' album This Is War.
Beasts of the Southern Wild landed the Best Director title for Behn Zeitlin, who was also honoured with the Bingham Ray Award.
Emayatzy Corinealdi took home the Best Actor nod for her breakthrough performance in Middle of Nowhere while Emily Blunt, Rosemarie Dewitt and Mark Duplass received the Best Ensemble Performance for Your Sister's Sister.
Silver Linings Playbook director David O. Russell and Oscar winners Matt Damon and Marion Cotillard were also feted with Career Tribute statues for their contributions to cinema.