The British writer accepted a $93,352 (£62,200) award on Tuesday (19Oct10) at a ceremony in Odense, Denmark - the birthplace of famed children's writer Andersen.
Rowling spoke of her delight at the honour and paid tribute to the great Dane, insisting the Little Mermaid scribe "created indestructible, eternal characters."
She said, "I'm humbled and deeply honoured to receive this wonderful award. Hans Christian Andersen is a writer I revere, because his work was of that rare order that seems to transcend authorship... (This is) an award I shall treasure all my life."
The honour will be handed out to writers whose work can be compared to Andersen, according to the Associated Press.