The Rush Hour star was joined by Andy Lau, actor Donnie Yen and other Asian performers for the three-hour benefit.
Chan opened the show by calling for a moment of silence to honour the thousands who lost their lives in the March (11) tragedy.
He then led the performers in a rendition of peace anthem Succumb Not to Sorrow, based on a poem by Kenji Miyazawa.
Lau enjoyed the event's most poignant moment when he addressed the huge crowd and said, "The more ruthless natural disasters are, the more love there should be in the world. This event tonight gathers performing artists from different places, hoping to deliver the message, 'Don't be defeated by natural forces' to all those in the disaster areas."
Soul star Lionel Richie also made an appearance via a video recording - he offered a rendition of his hit Say You, Say Me from a stage in Australia, where he is on tour.
Richie had a special message for the people of Japan: "We believe you can survive this and you will get stronger."
Chan made a rare singing performance, belting out the tune Believe in Yourself.
Proceeds from Friday's concert will benefit the Salvation Army.