The 62 year old, who played Superman's love interest Lois Lane on the big screen, was part of a group staging a rally about TransCanada Corp.'s Keystone XL pipeline scheme.
The campaigners are hoping to convince U.S. President Barack Obama to quash the $7 billion planned project to move oil from Alberta to America's Gulf Coast. Canadian officials have already approved the work, but it needs a final nod from authorities in the U.S. before it can go ahead.
During the rally, Kidder declared, "It's bound to leak... They always assure us these things are safe, and they never are."
But the protest outside the White House was broken up by police, who arrested several of the group including Kidder, reports The Washington Post. Kidder's friend and fellow actress Tantoo Cardinal was also among those arrested.
The stars were charged with failing to obey an order governing protests on the sidewalk. They were reported to have been released late on Tuesday.