Queen Victoria's Empire | 2000
At the time of Queen Victoria's birth in 1819, England was an agrarian society. Within a few short decades, this small island nation would be transformed into an industrial superpower, with an empire spanning the globe. The program presents a portrait of a Queen who ruled over one-fifth of the world's population.
Beginning with the birth of Queen Victoria, this episode explores the changes brought to Britain by the industrial revolution. By the the 1840's, urban migration has created overcrowding and extremes in pollution and poverty. However, British subjects remain loyal to their Queen. Prince Albert, Victoria's husband becomes a guiding force in the monarchy. Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone, political stars with starkly contrasting visions of empire, turn the nation's attention abroad.
In the 1850's, one half of the world's industrial goods are made in Britain and steamships bring British exports and families to far corners of the globe. In India, the clash of Victorian values and Indian culture explodes in the Great Mutiny and Cawnpore massacre of 1857. Appalled by the bloodshed, Victoria and Albert draft a proclamation to assume direct rule over India. This episode also reveals the devastating effects of the Crimean War, the first major of Victoria's reign and the death of Prince Albert.
By 1861, Britain is the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth. However, the death of Prince Albert weakens Victoria and many of his political ideas fade from importance. David Livingstone's explorations of the African interior fascinate the British public. Disraeli and Gladstone battle for control of the British government and debate the course of empire. The purchase of the Suez Canal solidifies British presence in the Middle East, igniting a stampede for the colonization of Africa.
The Suez Canal is threatened by a holy war in the Sudan and General Charles Gordon killed by the rebels becomes an "Imperial Martyr." Cecil Rhodes prospects diamond deposits in southern Africa and asserts British control in the region. The Boer War leads to devastating losses and a reassessment of British purpose. Finally, in 1901, the death of Queen Victoria marks the end of an extraordinary era.